Friday, March 13, 2009

The Iranun Kuntao (Martial Arts)

Travel to uncertainty - PTK

Ron Kosakowski-head instructor of Practical Self-Defense Training Center at 847 Hamilton Ave. Waterbury ,Connecticut 06706, school Address had made a strong effort to be in the Philippines to joint the Blademaster Camp along with the leadership of Mandala Tim WAid and members of the PTGO from other starts including the delegation from Argentina-Buenos Aires, Latin America. for ten days of tedious training at Puerto Galera, Island of Mindoro the fun and the thrill of training along the green beaches of Puerto Galera was so tempting that for a days training , every one is looking for the next day of more training. The sea water that soaks into a chilled bodies who were used to absorb icy cold weather turned to red color like a cooked shrimp. While the day was hot , the evening was lively hearing the dancing music that goes with the dancing lights along the long line of restaurants and drinking night clubs.But the end was not the last thing to do for Ron. His desire to seek the authencity of his Kuntao was keep firing into his nerves that since his teacher in Kuntao Master Joe Rossi was not able to identify his teacher of kuntao while he was in his military mission in the Philippines, Ron's was not satisfied what he learn but wants to know the real contents of Rossi's Kuntao. He found an opportunity to be in the Philipines to check his Kuntao. So I arrange that he can meet the original kuntaos in the Island of Mindanao, particularly in the Province of Maguindanao. This is the Province where the MILF_MNLF, Bansang Moro and the Abu Sayaf operates as their heaven for training and take off point for special missions. At the center of the Province is the sitio called Pekit-maybe related to Pekiti. This is a community of combine Muslim and Ilongo Christian co-exist but in between was a demarcation line where the muslim cannot cross and for the Christian not to cross. On top of the valley was the Military and other portion is the Police Special Action Force Commando Fortress surrounded with cemented wall and a observatory tower. Down below we can use telecopes to view the Muslim renegades cleaning their barong and M-16. From Davao city where we landed a two hour flight from Metro Manila together with Rommel, Denis, Ron and myself, at the airport the Air Marshalls stationed in DAvao airport ,our first graduate of the 54 strong air marshall that graduated in the Covert Escort Security Service for National Air Carrrier ( CESSNA)FINAL qualification training conducted at Camp Castaneda, Silang Cavite from November 14 to December 2005.extended a special courtesy with providing us a WElcome reception , a good taste of Davao food.In the afternoon at 3:00PM the special action force commandos arrived , joined us for a coffee break . We exchange pleasantries and we moved to ride on a big Toyata truck with police sign . eight SAC team fully armed to the teeth with m-203 grenade rockets plus four of us depart Davao Province bound for Cotabato ( Maguindanao). As the sun bound to sunset , the darkeness was teachery because according to the Major of the SAC , told us just in case of assault and firing starts just duck . We are expecting ambushes along this highway about 120 kilometers to the point of destiny. Along the highway were several military check points and once in awhile the MILF or MNLF ( Bansang Moro) put up their own check points on a very remote parts of the highway and that is where the rock and roll starts. So the Major said , in case of ambush just take cover and lay flat on the floor of the truck while we take care of the rest. One of our guys said , if I know this I won't come with you guys. So I asked the Major, do you have extra rifles and he said I have a 9mm Jericho pistol but during the exchange of fire , if one of the guys is hit just pick up the M-16 and use it and keep firing. Ron sitting in front seat together with Dennis and the Driver , while me and Rommel joined the SAC team on the top of the truck.Luckily we arrived at Pekit fortress at about 1:00pm after midnight . We rested on a improvished housing by the Police, of course the normal military beds and mosquito nets. We were together in one place while the other team member were scathered outside as guards. The morning came and we had a good view of the wide tract of land. The Major explained to us that any piece of land that you see without rice plantation or the land is empty that is muslim property. But a piece of small land with rice and some trees that is owned by the Christians. So we asked why, because the tribes here just wants to fight but not to work for their lands. But once the christian is about to harvest his rice field they will ask a part because they said it is their land owned by their forefathers.

Comes in the afternoon, the Major had arranged ahead of time that the highest man of Kuntao can come to the Police camp and can show the Kuntao . According to the messenger this old man a grandmaster of kuntao Iranon can crash a stone with hands, an 80 year old man. Before sunset two messengers came to the camp on a friendly manner talked to the major and other SAC officers and I spoke to the messenger for the arrangement of the coming to the camp , short ceremony about kuntao and possibly for Ron to be recognized. But when the messenger saw Ron, they changed their mind instead that they are willing to have the ceremony at the village where the Muslim community and the muslim family can hold the presentation. So we didn't accept because Ron's head will be very costly maybe a good price on his head. So at 2:00 AM early in the morning we moved out with additional team members of the SAC bound for Malaybalay Bukidnon. Leaving Maguindanao was removing a fish bone in ones throat. So we travelled until we reached the town of Valencia where we had our break fast and met the relatives of the Major, we were given a tour of the land owned by one of the ancestral DAtu of another friendly tribe of Bukidnon who owned 70,000 hectares of land in his own family title. he showed us his mountains , valleys and plateaus . An excellent place to live in peace.
We continued to travel the whole day until we reached Cagayan De Oro where we can take our flgiht to Manila via Philippine Airlines. At the airport every woman with a face covered with Muslim traditions were staring at Ron since I think they saw a white man inside the Muslim airport. But the flight was comfortable and we had a good time landed in domestic airport in good laughing style.

But the end of Ron was not in Mindanao , I have a hidden from him that in Metro manila the Muslim had a big Muslim community compose of all tribes of Mindanao that lived in Metro manila ,owned buildings and big muslim products sold in Plaza Miranda and Quiapo area, a public market where goods are cheap but mostly Muslim goods. My friend is the real man of Kuntao . For many years we associated each other and I saw how was his Kuntao in real encounter in the street of Manila. But I didn't this that he was a Kuntao man until we were together in Singapore in the late 60's where we did business arrangement . So while Ron was in the hotel I told him to get ready to meet the real Kuntaiost, the council of the Minsupala Tribes. The Minsupala Tribe heads the Kuntao Maranaw, Kuntao Taosog, Kuntao Iranon. So he got his acceptance in special ceremony and with the promise to return so he can be at Bungao Island for his initiation and to see the real kuntao and advanced his training for the real authentic kuntao. We need a man like Ron who cross the bridge and don't look back . Since Ron is in Pekiti-Tirsia , we support his effort to identify the real authentic Kuntao not a fake Kuntao. K to the 2nd power.

The Maguindanao Sultanate (another Version)

The Maguindanao Tarsilas (Genealogy)

With some minor differences or variations, the Maguindanao tarsilas narrate how the Sharif Muhammad Kabungsuwan arrived on the shores of Mindanao with a sea-fariing people, after a long voyage from Johore. It is claimed that he was a son of the Sharif Ali Zein ul-Abidin, an Arab from Mecca (or Hadhramaut) who settled in Johore where he married a daughter (or sister, in other accounts) of the Sultan Iskandar Julkarnain. Clearly what is meant here is that the Sharif married a princess of the royal family of Johore that was descended from the dynasty founded by Iskandar Julkarnain, the first Malacca sultan. In the list of Malacca sultans, only one, the first bears his name; while in the list of the early Johore sultans, none bears it. For good chronological reasons, Muhammad Kabungsuwan could not have been a grandson of the first sultan of Malacca whose rule began around 1400. Consequently, it would have been more accurate to have stated that the Sharif Ali Zein ul-Abidin married into the Johore family that descended from Sultan Iskandar Julkarnain.

It is interesting to note that there are supplementary sections in the tarsilas regarding the genealogy of the Sharif Ali Zein ul-Abidin from the Prophet Muhammad, may peace be upon him. This is unlike the Sulu genealogy that does not contain a genealogy of the Sharif ul-Hashim but merely asserts that he was a descendant of the Prophet, may peace be upon him.

But the Maguindanao royal line is not entirely of “foreign” descent for, as the tarsilas assert, Muhammad Kabungsuwan married a few daughters of local chieftains, thus giving his descendants a claim to hold land, over and above a right to rule over Muslims. His daughters, too, later on, married local chiefs. In this light, it is evident why the rulers of Buayan, the Iranun datus, and minor sultans among the Maranaos have all claimed descent from Muhammad Kabungsuwan.

Since the kingdom of Johore was not established before 1511, the year of Malacca’s fall to the Portuguese, the coming of Muhammad Kabungsuwan must have taken place after this event.

The Maguindanao Rulers and Sultans;

1. Sharif Muhammad Kabungsuwan:

According to the Maguindanao tarsilas, his father was Sharif Ali Zein ul-Abidin from Arabia, and his mother belonged to the royal family of Johore. It may be speculated that he arrived on the shores of Mindanao around 1515. He first settled in what is now Malabang.

2. Sharif Maka-alang:

He was a son of Muhammad Kabungsuwan and surnamed “saripada.” His mother Angintabu was a daughter of an Iranon chief from the area now known as Malabang.

In 1543, when the Villalobos expedition, some Spaniards were able to go to the mouth of a big river (Pulangi) where they were informed by the inhabitants that their chief was called “Sarriparra.” This being a variation of “Salipada” or “Saripada”, it can be surmised that the chief was Sharief Maka-alang; especially if it is considered that not only does a tarsila explicitly state that the Sharif had such a title but that such a title was not found among his immediate successors.

3. Datu Bangkaya:

He was a son of Sharif Maka-alang. In 1574, Guido de Lavezaris wrote to the Spanish King that the chief of the Mindanao River wanted to become a friend of the Spaniards. In another Spanish report, dated 1579, this chief is referred to as “Asulutan” (Arabic, Assultan) with the information that he was a father of Dimasangkay and that he had already died. This refers probably to Datu Bangkaya who by 1574 must have been reigning for some time, since in 1579, his son, Dimasangkay, was considered by the Spaniards to have been “an old man.” Datu Bangkaya could also have been the ruler in the Pulangi who was reported to have died in 1578.

4. Datu Dimasangkay:

He was a son of Bangkaya. Spanish reports say that he was ruling in 1579 and that he was an old man. The leading datus of the Iranuns and Maranaos all claim descent from him.

5. Datu Salikula:

He was a half brother of Dimasangkay and also known as Gugu Salikula. Up to early 1597, he appeared to be a leading chief of Maguindanao, Dimasangkay being dead at that time. According to tarsilas, he married a Sulu princess, and therefore he must have been the Maguindanao chief seen in Jolo in 1597 where he was supposed to have been vanished for being “restless and rebellious” and who was further described as a brother-in –law of the Sulu ruler and an uncle of the Maguindanao rajah muda (erroneously called “king”) by the Spaniards. He was chief around 1585-1597.

6. Kapitan Laut Buisan:

He was a younger half-brother of both Dimasangkay and Salikula; he was sometimes called by the title “Katchil.” His rule began around 1597 when he displaced Salikula; he controlled his nephew, the rajah muda, a son of Dimasangkay. He must have been chief at least up to 1619, since Dutch sources mention relations with the immediate predecessor of Qudarat at this date.

7. Sultan Qudarat:

A son of Buisan, he was known to the Spaniards as Corralat and to some Dutch writers as Guserat. In 1619-1621, there was war between Buayan and Maguindanao, probably dynastic or a contest for primacy in the Pulangi. Qudarat must have been involved in this war for not long after a temporary reversal he appears as exercising some political power over Buayan. Furthermore, he must have consolidated his power well enough after this to enable him to attack Sarangani in 1625. He died about the end of 1671 after having ruled for about half a century. His rule, with varying fortunes and at different capitals, can, therefore, be fairly estimated to have taken place from 1619 to 1671. By 1645, he was already using the title of “sultan”. As a young man he was entitled “Katchil.” His regal name was Qudratullah, which denoted that the bearer’s power came from God. His great grandchildren referred to him as Nasir ud-Din.

8. Sultan Dundang Tidulay:

He was a son of Qudarat and there is a report that he died before his father. If he ruled at all, it must have been for a very short time. He was referred to as Saif ud-Din by his grandchildren.

9. Sultan Barahaman (Arabic, Abd ur-Rahman):

He was a son of Sultan Tidulay. He was also known as Minulu-sa-Rahmatullah. His sons referred to him as Muhammad Shah. He was the Almo Sobat (Arabic, Al Muthabbat) to William Dampier or the Almo al Lasab Brahaman to the Spaniards. The name of his grandfather Qudarat was also used by him. He was heard of as sultan as early as 1678. Information given to Dutch officials at Ternate was that he died on July 6, 1699.

10. Sultan Kahar ud-Din Kuda:

He was a younger brother of Barahaman and was sometimes known as Jamal ul-Azam. He also assumed the title of Amir ul-Umara as well as that of Maulana. His reign was contested by two of his nephews, the sons of Barahaman. To make more secure his authority, he asked the aid of the Sulu Sultan Shahab ud-Din who came over to Simuay where Kuda held court. A misunderstanding as well as bitterness due to a long standing feud brought about a pitched battle between the Sulus and Maguindanaons. In the struggle, the Sulu Sultan personally slew Kuda. This event took place on August 10, 1702.

11. Sultan Bayan ul-Anwar:

His legal name was Jalal ud-Din. Entitled “Dipatuan” during lifetime, he was known after his death as Mupat Batua. He was a son of Sultan Barahaman. In 1701, he was already intriguing against his uncle the sultan. He succeeded to the throne in 1702 and held court in Slangan but was often in Sibugay. His younger bother Jafar Sadiq, the rajah muda, revolted against him but he managed to keep the throne. In 1736, Anwar “abdicated” in favor of his son Tahir ud-Din Malinug (No. 13). He died around 1745.

12. Sultan Muhammad Jafar Sadiq Manamir:

He was a younger brother of Sultan Buyan ul-Anwar. He was sometimes referred to as Amir ud-Din. Referred to as Maulana while alive, he was known after his death as Shahid Mupat. He contested the reign of his older brother but he was forced to flee to Tamontaka in 1710. Dutch officials referred to him as “the young king” to distinguish him from sultan Bayan ul-Anwar. By 1725, he had assumed the title of Paduka Sri Sultan. In March 1733, his brother and nephew Malinug attacked his forces in Tamontaka. The latter caused his death in the ensuing struggle. While his brother had power along the coast, Manamir held sway over the interior. His power was recognized in Tamontaka from about 1710 to his death in March 1733.

13. Sultan Muhammad Tahir ud-Din:

A son of Sultan Bayan ul-Anwar (No. 11), he was commonly known to the Spaniards as Dipatuan Malinug. He was also known as Muhammad Shah Amir ud-Din. In a battle in 1733, he killed his uncle Jaafar Sadiq Manamir. In 1736, his father started sharing with him the responsibilities of government. His authority was however contested by two of his cousins, sons of Manamir, forcing him to retire to the interior where he died in Buayan around 1748.

14. Sultan Muhammad Khair ud-Din:

He was a son of Sultan Jafar Sadiq and was better known to Europeans as Pakir Maulana Kamsa (Arabic, Farqir Maulana Hamzah) or Amir ud-Din Hamza. He also used the name Azim ud-Din and assume the title Amir ul-Mu’minin. In 1733, after his father was slain, he began to consider himself heir to the throne and thereupon called himself “rajah muda.” The next year, he was formally invested with the duties of a sultan in the presence of Spanish officials from Zamboanga. With some Spanish aid, he was able to consolidate his position in Tamontaka and contest the rule of his uncle Bayan ul-Anwar and later that of his cousin Malinug. But upon the latter’s death around 1748, the struggle for the sultanate ceased. Pakir Maulana Kamsa emerged as paramount chief of Maguindanao. Around 1755, he started to relinquish some of his powers to his younger brother with the condition that his son, Kibad Sahriyal, would be the raja muda.

15. Sultan Pahar ud-Din:

He was a younger brother of Pakir Maulana Kamsa and was known as Datu Pongloc or Panglu. He began to exercise the powers of Sultan around 1755 and was in the sultan’s seat in that same year when Captain Thomas Forrest paid a visit to Maguindanao. After his death he was known as Mupat Hidayat.

16. Sultan Kibad Sahriyal:

His more legal title was Muhammad Azim ud-Din Amir ul-Umara. He was ason of Pakir Maulana Kamsa (No. 14). Even before the death of his uncle the Sultan, he was already being addressed as “sultan.” He was friendly towards the Spaniards and at least twice entered into peaceful negotiations with them, namely, in 1789 and 1794. He probably governed from 1780 to 1805.

17. Sulatn Kawasa Anwar ud-Din:

He was a son of Kibad Sahriyal and like his father was also entitled Amir ul-Umara. He entered into a peaceful treaty with the Spaniards in 1805. One of his seals carried the title Iskandar Julkarnain. He possibly reigned from 1805 to 1830.

18. Sultan Iskandar Qudratullah Muhammad Jamal ul-Azam:

He was more popularly known as Sultan Untong. He was a great grandson of Kibad Sahriyal (No. 16) and a nephew of Sultan Kawasa (No. 17). Some Spanish documents carry his name as Iskandar Qudarat Pahar ud-Din. In 1837 and 1845, he entered into friendly treaties with the Spaniards. He died either in 1853 or 1854.

19. Sultan Muhammad Makakwa:

He was a grandson of Sultan Kawasa Anwar ud-Din (No. 17). His rule can be estimated to have lasted from 1854 to 1884. He died in Nuling (in the site of the old settlement of Maguindanao)

20. Sultan Muhammad Jalal ud-Din Pablu:

Also known as Sulatn Wata, he was a son of Sultan Makakwa. His capital was at Banubu, just opposite the town of Cotabato across the Pulangi. His death took place in 1888.

21. Sultan Mangigin:

He was a grandson of the famous Datu Dakula of Sibugay, who, in turn, was a grandson of Kibad Sahriyal (No. 16). He began his rule in 1896. From 1888 to 1896, the sultanate was vacant. This was probably due to the fact that Datu Utto (Sultan Anwar ud-Din of Buayan wanted his brother-in-law Datu Mamaku (a son of Qudratullah Untung) to become the Sultan. The Spaniards, however, wanted the sultanate to go to one of the Sibugay datus. Around the end of 1900, Sultan Mangigin transferred his residence from Cotabato to Sibugay. In 1906, he married Rajah Putri, the widow of Datu Utto and sister of Datu Mamaku.


The Camp Iranon (formerly known as Camp Abubakar of MILF)

Gov. Hussin says peace now within reach in all of M'danao; More economic projects pursued, reg'l exec adds.
Publication: Manila Bulletin

COTABATO CITY Governor Parouk S. Hussin of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) says life in the region is back to normal as efforts to improve peace and order in the ARMM, particularly in the once troubled island provinces of Basilan and Sulu, is gaining ground.
The recent arrest and killing of Abu Sayyaf leaders and members and other lawless elements have contributed to the improved peace and order all over Mindanao.
A vital ingredient that contributes to the prevailing peaceful climate in the region, Hussin said, is the revival of the peace negotiation between the government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in 1996.
Hussin, who is running for senator under the administration ticket, also cited the Arroyo administrations effort to transform Mindanao into the countrys food basket as a big step towards ending the three-decade-old secessionist movement.
President Arroyo recently ordered the rehabilitation of the vast Camp Abubakar, renamed Camp Iranon after the Iranon group, and the conversion of the same from being a former MILF stronghold to a major agro-industrial center.
Another vast area, the 21,000-hectare Columbio Resettlement Area (CRA) in Sultan Kudarat, home to some 7,000 former MILF fighters, is also being developed into a major agro-industrial hub.
"The Arroyo administrations rural development program is a big step towards the attainment of lasting peace in the region and other parts of Mindanao. It will not only help curb insurgency but it will also create more jobs and spur rural economy," Hussin said.
Hussin said the region is now secured more than ever, thanks to the recent transfer of the administrative management and supervision over the regional command of the Philippine National Police (PNP) to the ARMM, which has greatly contributed to the successful operations against criminal elements in the area.
He added the creation of the ARMM Armed Forces Unified Command under the Southern Command last June beefed up the security of the region.
It signified the completion of the Military component of the 1996 Peace Agreement between the Philippine Government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF).
The ARMM governor recently organized the Regional Peace and Order Council (RPOC) to promote mechanism for the resolution of traditional conflicts.

The History of Municipality of Alamada

Legal Mandate

The Municipality was created pursuant to Republic Act 5645 passed by the Senate on May 20, 1969 and the House of Representative on May 22, 1969. Its name was adopted in memory and in honor of the late powerful ruler, Datu Amaybulyok Alamada. He was the leader who fought against the foreign oppression and tyranny. The Datu was recognized as one of the fiery rulers by the Iranon and the Dalaman who were scattered throughout the Northern Part of the Municipalities of Pigcawayan, Libungan, Sultan Kudarat and in Kitacubong (now Poblacion) as the seat of his Kingdom. Prior to its creation as a Municipality, the area was a pilot project of the late President Ramon Magsaysay. It was a resettlement area for HUK surrenderees. Prior to its creation as a Municipality the area was a pilot project of the late President Ramon Magsaysay. It was also a public land as declared by then President Elpidio Quirino on March 10, 1953. It was declared as a resettlement site under Proclamation No. 376. After its declaration as a resettlement area, President Quirino designated the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) to implement the ‘Land for the Landless’ program.

On January 1, 1954, the area was named Genio Edcor, pursuant to Section 3 of General Order No. 409 GHQ, AFP, the name was in honor of the late M/SGT REGINO GENIO who was ambushed in 1953 at Perido Edcor Farm, Angadunan, Isabela, by the Hukbong Magpapalaya ng Bayan sa Hapon. From January 1, 1954, to August 6, 1961, Genio Edcor was a political subdivision by the Municipality of Midsayap. MR. SAMSON B. BUENAFE, a bonafide settler of Genio Edcor, represented the area in the Municipal of Midsayap.

When Libungan (as part of Midsayap) was created as a Municipality on August 7, 1961, Edcor become a barangay of Libungan. Three (3) settlers of Genio Edcor were representatives to the Municipal Council of Libungan. After seven years, five (5) settlers from Genio Edcor were representatives of the Municipal Council of Libungan. On January 30, 1967, these gentlemen, Edmundo Buenaflor, Dioscoro Jalandoni, Juan Manantan, Teodoro Esteban and Samson Buenafe, sponsored resolution No. 6, series of 1967 creating Genio Edcor as a separate Municipality. The resolution was approved by the council and was forwarded to the Provincial Board of Cotabato. And after that the Governor Datu Udtog Matalam returned the Municipal resolution No. 6 was amended by resolution No. 25 dated 13 November 1967 proposing the creation of the Municipality of Alamada and Kitacubong as the seat of the Municipal government. On April 4, 1968, the Provincial Board of Cotabato approved Resolution No. 38 supporting resolution No. 254 for the creation of the Municipality of Alamada. Resolution No. 38 was forwarded to the congress for approval. On May 20, 1969 the Senate and the House of Representative by the sixth Congress for approval. On which finally created the Municipality of Alamada.


Wednesday, March 11, 2009

Genealogy of Maguindanao Sultanate

Sultanate of Maguindanao
1. SHARIF KABUNSUAN - son of Sharif Zainal Abi-Din 1515.

2. SHARIF MAKA-ALANG - son of Sharif Kabunsuan in 1548 during the Villalobos Expedition some Spaniards stayed with the inhabitant,the other flew back to Spain due to religious conflict.

3. DATU BANGKAYA - son of Sharif Maka-Alang in 1574 Guido de Lazares to send letter to the Spanish king stating that the chief ot the Mindanao ruler wished to become friend to the Spaniards….from Spanish report date:1574-1579.
4. DATU DIMASANGKAY- son of Datu Bangkaya according to Spanish report was the ruler in 1579.The leading Datus Iranon and Maranao claimed descendants of Datu Dimasangkay. Luis Torres Del Mendoza Collision De Commandoes Religious and Discubremiento Congrista Organization de los Antiquos Poseciones Spanioles in America-Acena (Madrid 1886) volume possessions V.p125. THE LETTER TO PHILIPPINES II DATE JULY 17, 1574 BLAIR AND REBESTION THE PHILIPPINES. VOL.111-p275. 56 ACCOUNT OF EXPEDITION TO BORNEO, JOLO and MINDANAO P. FRANCISCO DE SANDI AND OTHER MANILA APRIL 19, 1578 TO JUNE 10, 1579 ebbed. VOLUME IV p.241 AND p292. 57 ebbed p.229 AND pp.240-241.
5. DATU SALIKULA- A half brother of Dimasangkay also known as “GOGO”. Datu Salikula up to early 1579 becomes the LEADING CHIEF unfortunately Datu Dimasangkay died during the reigned of Datu Salikula.According to the Tarsila, Datu Dimasangkay married to the Sulu princess with all his might and power. He was the Maguindanao chieftain in Jolo from 1585 to 1597.
6.KAPITAL LAUT BUISAN- A younger half brother of Datu Dimasangkay and Datu Salikula sometime called by the title “KATCHIL”. He ruled around 1597. He displaced Datu Salikula. He controlled his nephew- RAJAH MUDA son of Datu Dimasangkay become the Chieftain and his rule last up to 1619.
7. SULTAN QUDARAT- A son of Datu Buisan was known to the Spaniards as “CORRATAT” the son of Dutch, to writers as QUIRERAT in 1619.In 1621 there was war between BUAYAN and MAGUINDANAO. During this time Sultan Qudarat has been distorted by this war. Not long after there was a temporary transition. He appeared as exercising his political power over Buayan. Further more he must have consolidated his power after their noble attacked to Sarangani in 1625.He died about the end of 1671, having ruled for about half of Sarangani. By 1645, He was early using the title SULTAN, A YOUNG MAN. His great grand children called him Naser-Ud-Din.
8. SULTAN DUNDONG TEDURAY- He was the son of SULTAN QUDARAT. SULTAN DUNDONG TEDURAY died before His father ruled. It has been a very short time for him to rule. He was referred as SAIF-UD-DIN by His grand children.
9. SULTAN BART BARHAMAN (Arabic ABD.-RAHMAN) A son of TEDURAY, He was also known as MINSULU SA RAHMATULLAH. His son referred to Him as MOHAMMAD SHA also Sabat- Arabic-AL-MU-THABBAT. WILLIAM DAMPIER or ALMO-AL LASAB. BRAHAMAN to the Spanish, name of grand father QUDARAT was also use by Him. His reigned was heard as SULTAN in early 1678. This information reached to Dutch officials at Ternate on July 6, 1679.
10. SULTAN KHAHAR-UD-DIN-KUDA – A young brother of BRAHAMAN sometimes known as JAMAL-UL- AZAN. He also assumed the title of AMIR-UL-UMRA as well as the MAULANA. His reigned was contested by his two (2) nephews. The son of BARHAMAN advised him to be keen in selected of authority, with the guidance of the SULU SULTAN SHAHAB-UD-DIN who came over from Simuay. SULTAN KUDA held this in court on August 10, 1702.
11. SULTAN BAYAN UL-ANWAR – His other legal name JAFAR-UD-DIN which entitled Him to be named DIPATUAN, a life time legacy. On his death he was called MUPAT BATUA. In 1701 atmosphere becomes unpleasant, where he created plot against His Uncle SULTAN KHAHAR-UD-DIN “KUDA”. He succeeded the throne in 1707, held in SILANGAN that was after Sibugay events, appointment of the temporary SULTAN which was enthroned to SULTANA PUTRI TUAN BAI, the Auntie of SULTAN ESMAIL. His younger brother JA-FAR-UD-DIN, the RAJAH MUDA revolted against Him, but He manage to keep the throne in 1936 ANWAR abdicated in favor of TAHIR-UD-DIN MALINOG no.13. He died around 1735.
12. SULTAN MOHAMMAD JAFAR SADIQ MANAMIR – Younger brother or SULTAN BAYAN UL-ANUAR sometimes referred to AMAR-UD-DIN as MAULANA, enjoyed his lifetime title. His death granted him to other named SHAHID MUPAT.He contested the reigned of his other brother; he was forced to flew to TAMUNTAKA in 1710. Dutch official referred him as the young king to destiny, a heartfelt wished from SULTAN BAYAN AL ANUAR, by 1725. he gained the title PEDUKO SITTIE SULTAN, march 1733 he assumed the title PEDUKO SITTIE SULTAN. His power was recognized; he enjoyed the valor and fame from 1710 to1733. His brother and nephew attacked his forced in TAMUNTAKA. His title and power cause his death. His brother SULTAN MANAMIR ruled over the in terror. He died on March 1733.
13. SULTAN MOHAMMAD TAHIR-UD-DIN, Son of SULTAN BAYAN UL-ANUAR. He was commonly know to Spanish as SITAH DIPATUAN MALINOG, He was also known as MOHAMMAD SHAH-AMIR-UD-DIN. In battle 1733, He killed his uncle JAFAR SALIQ MANAMIR, 1736. His father taught him the responsibilities of good government. His authority was contested by two of his cousins MANAMIR UD-DIN forcing him to retire to the interior. SULTAN BAYAN AL ANUAR around 1748.
14. SULTAN MOHAMMAD KHAHAR-UD-DIN, Son of SULTAN JAFAR SADIQ MINAMIR and was better known EUROPIAN PAKER MAULANA. HAMSA (ARABIC PAKER MAULANA HAMZAH or AMIR-UD-DIN HAMZAH also used the name AZIM-UD-DIN. He assumed the title AMIR-UL-MU-MININ in 1733 after his father was slained. He begun to consider himself the heir to the throne, thus upon called himself RAJAH MUDA.
15. SULTAN PAHAR-UD-DIN, Younger brother of PAKER MAULANA HAMZAH known as DATU PONGLOK as he begun to exercise his power as SULTAN, around 1755 and on the later part CAPTAIN THOMAS FORRET paid a visit.
16. SULTAN KIBAO SAHARIYAL, His legal title was MOHAMMAD AZIM UD-DIN AMIR-UL-UMRAH, son of PAKER MAULANA HANZAH, No.14 seen before the death of his uncle, SULTAN he was already being addressed by friends towards the Spanish, He had a wise internal peaceful relation with them from 1788 to 1794 but prior to this year he has his government from 1780 to 1805.
17. SULTAN KAWASA ANUAR-UD-DIN, son of SULTAN KIBAD SAHARIYAL, and like his father AMIR-UL-UMRAH entered into a peace treaty with Spaniards in 1805 one of the seal carried 167,1719 XIX terminate P.D.1375-377 amt. INDIL the gained his original title of ISKANDAR JURKARNAIN in the year 1805 to 1830.
18. SULTAN ISKANDAR QUDARATULLAH, MOHAMMAD JAMAL AL –AZAM –popularly known as Sultan Untong .He is the Great Grand son of KIBAD SAHARIYAL, nephew of SULTAN KAWASA 1853-1854 No.17,come Spanish document carry his name Iskandar Qudarat,Pahar Ud-Din.In 1837-1845,In those years he had a friendly treaty with the Spaniards.He died either in the year 1853 or 1854.
19. SULTAN MOHAMMAD MAKAKUA- son of AMIR-UL UMRAH “INTERINO”.SULTAN KAWASA ANUAR-UD-DIN “Kulano”. His reigned during settlement of Maguindanao from 1854-1884.He died in Nuling in the site of the Old man.
20. SULTAN MOHAMMAD JALAL-UD-DIN “PABLO” also known as SULTAN WATA. He was the son of SULTAN MAKAKUA of Banubo just opposite town of Cotabato, across the Pulangi River. His death took place in 1886.
21. SULTAN MANGIGUIN-He was the grand son of former DATU DAKULA OF SIBUGAY, Who was the grand son of KIBAD SAHARIYAL NO.16.He started his rule in 1886, on 1886-1896.The Sultanate was vacant, but the aunt of SULTAN MOHAMMAD ESMAIL was appointed as the temporary Sultana at that time. SULTAN MOHAMMAD ESMAIL was still a young boy incapable to handle responsibilities. This made the appointment of SULTANA PUTRI TUANBAI-Sibugay . DATU MAMAKU son of SULTAN UNTONG become the Sultan. Around 1900 some Spaniards pay a courtesy visit to one of Sibugay Datus for official trip .SULTAN MANGIGUIN transferred his residence from Cotabato-Sibugay in 1906.He married RAJAH PUTRI,the widow of DATU UTTO sister of DATU MAKAKUA.
22. SULTAN MOHAMMAD “TATO”ESMAIL- son of WATA MAMA CALOG SA MAGUINDANAO and BAITABAY. His parents were first cousins. SULTAN MANGIGUIN, choose his nephew to become the next Sultan, at that time SULTAN MOHAMMAD ESMAIL was only 7yrs.old.His youthful age was not a hindrance to gained a seat of reservation for the throne of sultanate on at the age of 35 , he was proclaimed THE SULTAN OF MAGUINDANAO.GENERAL WOOD OF WASHINGTON D.C. Made a report that SULTAN MANGIGUIN had made his final recommendation for the next Sultanate which was reserved SULTAN MOHAMMAD ESMAIL, who at that time was a young boy; base on the criteria that governed on succession of descendants. This report of GENERAL WOOD was submitted to the office of THE PRESIDENT WASHINGTON D.C. IN 1886-1888.SULTAN MOHAMMAD ESMAIL, one of the brave fighter during the Japanese War, attacked in Mindanao in 1941-1942. In 1943 The American Army , send a message looking forward for the Sultan of Mindanao a citation for being a brave soldier, who stand for American Flag in the midst of the war between the Japanese. CAPTAIN MICARTE was in his side in MALANGAS FIRING LINE. It was him CAPTAIN MICARTE who made a moved to look for Sultan Mohammad Esmail assisted by the group of American. This American volunteer reached BONGO ISLAND in 1943. They were able to find SULTAN MOHAMMAD ESMAIL to PARANG in the same year. In 1944, COLONEL SUAREZ and MR. CODIER visited the Sultan who was in TARAKAN, DINAS ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR . He called for training in military at that time.Their residence in TARAKAN, DINAS ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR was his official seat of his throne as SULTAN. Some American Generals and Officials pay visit to the Sultan’s residence. He died on September 3, 1991 at the age of 115 (IKA-SAPULO NA DULOM, SA ULAN-ULAN NA SAFAR).
Ya paganay a na Datu sa Magulaling na so Dungklang babai no Dungklang so payak. Pingaluma no Mupat Batua so payak. Mimbata silan na ( 3 ) :
1. “Malinog” yabon Mupatsidiq
2. Bahni- Tubu-Tubu
3. Emmar Mayla
So Dungklang wata no Abad yabon “Mindig”:
· Mimbata na so na Noni yabon “Zainal Abi-Din”
· Mimbata na so Zainal Abi-Din na so Shariful Wali-Ullaho-Hama-Dud-Din
· Mimbata na so Sharif-Ullaho na so Hamid-Ud-Din
· Mimbata na so Hamid-Ud-Din na so Diya-Ud-Din
· Mimbata na so Diya-Ud-Din na so Manamir-Ud-Din
· Mimbata na so Manamir-Ud-Din na so Anuar-Ud-Din (Sultan Kawasa)
· Mimbata na so Anuar-Ud-Din na so Umbak Sira Jud-Din yabon “Mauyag”.Yanin pugi na Amirul-Umra Sira Jud-Din Atawa “Tibpod". Lusod nin sa tiyan ina/ama so Tawada atawka “babayada”.
· Mimbata na so Umbak na so Kibad Khahar-Ud-Din “Binito”
· Mimbata na so Kibad Khahar-Ud-Din na so Alimod-Din Allaho Fahar-Ud-Din entobay “Intererino”. (Amirul Umrah sa Maguindanao)
· Mimbata so Ali-Mod-Din “Interino” na so Ansari-Alam Jalal-Ud-Din “Panansaran”
· Mimbata so Ansari-Alam Jalal Ud-Din “Panansaran” na so Daga atawa Raga, Simang, Tabong, Binito.
“TUPO NO MALANG”Datu wa lukes sa Malang a Mragat, kaka ni Amir-Ud-Din ando si Gumarok.
“TUPO NO MIDTID SA INGED”Midtid sa inged a Parti, ya nauna na. Datu sa Magulaling Balabagan pinangaluma nin so “Babai no Diyog”. Mimbata na silan na sila:
1. Panayaman
2. Bangondidi “Midted sa Inged”
3. Bulontay “Ina ni Minta”
4. Dimanda “Datu Manguda”
5. Atik- ina no Sultan Pablue
Nangaluma so Sultan Diya-Ud-Din na so wata Mupat Hidayat, mimbata silan na so Manamir-ud-Din.
Nangaluma so Manamir-Ud-Din, wata no Amman Bayalabi a nadsaupan na Tindig go mupat Sharif ando Tindig go Mupat-Sidiq, mimbata na so “Dido” – ina no Kulano-Anur-Ud-Din.
Nangaluma so Kulano wata no Malang so Adi, mimbata silan na so Umbak Sira Jud-Ud-Din, mimbata so Umbak na so Kibad Khahar-Ud-Din na so Alimod-Din Allaho Fahar-Ud-Din (Interino), mimbata so Alimod-Din na so Ansari Jalal-Ud-Din:
1. Daga atawa “Raga”
2. Simlang
3. Binito
Amirul-Umrah “Intirino” – Ama no Sultan Kawasa “Lusod sa tiyan no Sultan Kawasa sa Maguindanao”“Sultan Makakua” Ansari – Alam-Jalal-Ud-DinBai a wata- Pidtairan sa MaguindanaoDatu Masla- EdrisMarajalaila- Ama ni PukandangTintiaw
Pinangaluma no Sultan Makakua so Atik wata no Midtid sa Inged da porte, mimbata silan na so Sultan Pablue sa Maguindanao.
Mimbata so Sultan sa Maguindanao na so:
Putri-Tuan Bai, mimbata so Putri Tuan Bain a so Bai a Padido.
Wata no Datu Masla-Edris so:
Wata Mama-Calog
Napangaluma no Tibpod so Bai a wata no Pidtairan sa Maguindanao ( Balo ) mimbata silan na so:
Wata no (Amir-ul Umrah sa Maguindanao) Alimod-din Allaho Fahar-Ud-Din “INTERINO”:
1.) Ansari-Alam Jalal-Ud-Din “Sultan Makakua”
2.) Edris”Datu Masla sa Maguindanao”
3.) Pidtairan “Bai a wata sa Maguindanao”
4.) Marajalaila “Ama ni Pukandang”
5.) Tintiaw
Wata no Anuar-Ud-Din “kulano” so Umbak Sira Jud-Din Yabon Tibpod “Maliyag” Pinangaluma nin so Pidtairan “Bai a wata sa Maguindanao” mimbata silan na so:
1.) Laga
2.) Bagotao
3.) Tabay
Tupo no wata no “Amirul Interino” Alimod-Din Allaho Fahar-Ud-Dinso Edris “Datu Masla sa Maguindanao” A wata nin so wata “mama” Calog sa Maguindanao enggo so Pidtairan “Bai a wata sa Maguindanao” a pinangalumano Umbak sira Jud-Din. A wata nilan so Baitambay a pinangaluma no wata “mama” Calog.
So Pindada e nauna sa walay a kaluma no wata “mama” Calog sa Maguindanao.
Mga wata no wata “mama’ Calog kano Pindada:
1.) Datu Mangada (Ina nin so Dair)
2.) Datu Tangko
3.) Datu Akya/Aquia
4.) Bai Salilang
Ya tumondog sa walay a kaluma (2nd wife) no wata “mama” Calog na so Bitambay. A wata no Umbak sira Jud-Din Yabon Tibpod “Mauyag” enggo Pidtairan “Bai a wata sa Maguindanao” (Tinged silan Minsan)
Mga wata “mama”Calog ando so Baitambay na so:
1.) Datu Mohammad Tato” Esmael (22nd Sultan sa Maguindanao)
2.) Bai sa Pinanpanan
3.) Datu Damding
4.) “Datu Padido” Datu Indal Patra
Mga kaluma no Sultan Mohammad “Tato” Esmael
· Bai Idang Maulana (deceased)
· Bai Fatima Buday “Bukakang” Bilok (deceased)
· Bai Aga “Padido” Manupac (deceased)
· Bai Langkasia (deceased)
· Bai Babai Andi (deceased)
· Bai Aga Datang (alive)Mga wata no Sultan Mohammad “tato” Esmael
· Wata nin kani Bai Idang Maulana :
1.) Datu Zul Carnan
2.) Datu Caragdag
· Wata nin kani Bai Fatima Buday “Bukakang”:
1.) Datu Quezon(Mungangen) a wata Mohammad Alibasa (sultan sa Zamboanga Del Sur)
2.) Bai Puti “Bai Amirah”
3.) Bai Maitum “Shaidatun Nisa”
· Wata nin kani Bai Aga (Padido) a wata no (Prinsipe) Mamubpon
1.) Datu Mutinting “Luminog”
2.) Bai Medzecan “H. Basma”
3.) Datu Sulmanor Paris
· Wata nin kani Bai Langkasia
1.) Datu Azcuna “Amir Bangsa”
· Wata nin kani Bai Babai Andi
1.) Bai Victoria “Hamsia”
· Wata nin kani Bai Aga ( His last Wife)
1.) H. Salma Hadija Arena “kinang”
2.) Datu Hasangabra “Bobby/Embaya”
3.) Bai Sarshia “Alicia”
4.) Datu Mohammad Nhor Hasim
5.) Datu Zacaria “Cesar”
6.) Bai Badria “Bella”

The History of Cotabato City


The first positive written of the town proper of Cotabato is found in Maguindanao-Kabuntalan- Buayan tarsillas or genealogies. The original manuscripts translated into English in 1905, by Dr. Najeeb Saleeby as part of ethnological survey publications of the department of Interior. The Tarsal speaks briefly on early history of Maguindanao and rise of the sultanate but its principal function was to preserve the record of descent and determine the right succession of the of the sultanate.

But for the present article, this shall confine the background of Cotabato city History to that of Maguindanao proper. In that discussion will lead us to the establishment of the civil government in Cotabato town as distinguished from traditional administration of the maguindanao realm. Undeniably, little has been written about Cotabato part but substantially there exist also a number of travelogues Europeans who visited or stayed at the town some months. For the seventeenth century, there is a great account of the historian Combes, Captain Forrest and William Dampier, both English men whose ships laid anchor in this town, like wise were eyewitness historians of Maguindanao.

It is recorded in tarsila that the beginning of settled life was on the banks of the twin creeks of Rawass maguindanao and slanagan. In terms of local history, Sahriff Kbunsuwan was the son of Jusul Asiquin of Johore and Shariff Ali-Zain Abiden who came to maguindanao and converted to Islam all the people of maguindano, Matampay, Slangan, Simway and Katituan. In this conviction that this period presents the peregrination of the Malay rulers after Malacca fell into the hands of the Portuguese in 1511. However, evidence of the presence of Shariff Marajah and Hasan who proceeded Shariff Kabungsuwan, according to the tarsila, attest to one more generation of bearers of Islam who came to maguindanao. For the dating of Islamization period, the event was roughly in the year 1475 as estimated by Captain Thomas Forrest who visited maguindanao in 1775. And now generally settled in two generations of shariff lineage before Shariff Kabungsuwan because a certain Sharif Awliya (Arabic aula) mentioned in the tarsila as having come to maguindanao, arrived there and begot a daughter entitled “paramisuli”. The Filipino Cesar Adlib Maul has placed that event to take place roughly around 1460.

The history of Cotabato would have taken on a different course. This could be the way to picture the contrasting relations between the maguindanao sultanate and Spanish government. The maguindanao sphere of influence had begun to shrink with sahrival turning friendly towards Spain and signing treaties in 1789 and 1794 co validating the previous ones. His son and successor Sultan “Kawasa” Anwar ud-Din entered also into a peace treaty with the Spaniards in 1805.

In 1830, Sultan Kawasa died, leaving a son Datu Musa, at manubo a renovated mosque stands on the same site he originally erected the old one, with historical association including an old dabu-dabu (drum) and an ablution jar. According to maguindanao tradition. Datu Almansa Sulkarnain who was the late sultan brother and Rajah Muda succeed to the vacant seat. But pending the succession rites, and on account of the Spanish imperfect understanding of the situation, they recognized Datu Musa as “Amoral Interim’ (ad interim). Unfortunately, Datu Sulkarnain died in 1832, but one son inherited the rule of Sib gay; another of his sons named Rajah Taw had predeceased his father. On the basis of the great compromise of 1837 worked out by Jose Halcyon, Spanish governor at zamboanga, the seat passed on “Islander” to give representation to the house of Rajah Taw; the young Sultan entitled Islander Quadrahtullah Jamul Alma Uniting; his surname means “ the greatest beauty” known as well as quadrate by the Spaniards conferred on him the title “feudal king of tamontaka”.

In Sultan Quadrahtullah, entered into a treaty with the Spaniards allowing a trading house at Cotabato to arrest the declining volume of business in the region. In 1851, the Spaniards occupied polloc. Sultan Quadratullah died 1854 and was survived by a daughter Rajah Put, the sons Datu Marinating, Datu Gumander, Datu Mama, Datu Ambulate, and the youngest Datu Mastura. One on the left bank of Pulangui River at mid-way between Tuba and Lounging, there is a small monument erected in memory of those who died during the battle with the Spaniards.

In royal order of 1860, the Spanish Politico-Military Government of Mindanao was organized in which Cotabato and polloc formed the central or fifth district. The central district was made the capital of the Politico-Military-Government of Mindanao because of military reasons. A royal order of 1862 directed that the Spanish Governor of the district should reside on the delta of the pulangui, and it was Col. Garcia Ruiz who was the first to be appointed Governor of the fifth district. About 1872, the Spanish Jesuits begun to gather together into a pueblo (township) the sitios around tamontaka and organized population centers called taviran and lara, with their own governadorcillos. It was not so successful at the Awang pueblo, which was composed of Tiruray population. It was experimented by the Jesuits that Tamontaka be organized into a reduction (conversion) mission and an agricultural colony. Runaway slaves were purchased and sheltered by the Jesuits. Those ransomed were called rescate and reared in the catholic mission.

During that eventful year, 1884, an eighteen-kilometer highway, which runs from Polloc and connected to Cotabato, was constructed, passing through simony and ending at the present site of barrio Kalama, opposite Cotabato city. The district grew somewhat under Ramon de Acreaga and Vicente Dota, but afterwards declined because of lack maintenance.

In 1886, the Muslims of Subpangan for some reasons mounted resistance to Spanish incursion peace and order deteriorated on account of an incident between Datu Bansil of Lara and Watamama Mauya, the son of Rajah Muda Maminteng, which resulted in the killing of the former. When the matter reported to Governor Alvaro who tried to take the side of Datu Bansil, tension run high. A peace conference called Tamontaka ended in a fray, resulting in the death of Governor Alvaro, the Fiscal and in the wounding of Watamama Mauya who was able to escape to Talayan. Then, the Muslims burned the Jesuits mansion house at Tamontaka, the town of Amadeo near Polloc, the infantry barracks. Meanwhile, as matter became worse, Governor-General Emilio Terero prepared for a major expedition. After assembling some 3,411 men in the Pulangui River, he personally conducted the military operation against Datu Utu and Rajah Putri and the leading datus upriver; General Tererro’s arrival in Cotabato was celebrated with salvos, festivals while the preparation to attack Buayan made headway.

On March 12, 1887, negotiations were reached but Datu Utu had not even deigned to submit in person and merely sent emissaries. According to reports, only Datu Tambilawan of Kudarangan, an uncle of Datu Uto and the father of Datu Ali, with some 30 followers went on board the carriedo and terms of peace were discussed by Datu Sirungan, Dalandang (dalgan), who excused absence of Datu Utu and Rajah Putri and Dalgan of Tabungao, Gugo sa Buayan were Rajah Muda of Dalgan, Guiamaludin Sultan Tambila-Balsuag, Mama sa Buayan, Datu Ali, Datu Jambangan and Watamama Silungan. The capitulations contained a pledge of loyalty a stipulation not to wage war on the delta datu’s under Spanish regime. On the part of Spain, a stipulation was made for war indemnity in the form of “lantacas, buffalo and horses” and rehabilitations for destroyed rice paddies.

The following year however, after the death of Sultan Pablu the Spanish Government negotiated for a deed of reconciliation from From Rajah Putri, respecting “the religion of (her) forebears and the customs of0 (her) immediate family to be left unperturbed”. Wearied perhaps by the previous years of fighting, the Sultan Kudarat of “Talayan also signed an act of adhesion, allowing the Spanish forces to set up an outpost in Talayan. In 1894, on account of his advancing age Datu Utu took permanent residence at Nuling, close to the tombs of the royal family. Datu Utu died in 1902, but his wife lived to see many changes in Pulangui. Rajah Putri remarried Sultan Mangigin who succeeded Sultan Pablu and during whose reign the Americans came. On the bank of Pulangui just above the old Salimbao market, about three miles from Cotabato City, there is a “tampat” which shares the grave and memory of Datu and Rajah Putri who kept alive to the very end. The heritage of the Maguindanao-Buayan dynasty.


The materials presented so far give a historical sequence of transition from the sultanate to the Politico-military form of government. The occupation of Cotabato by the Americans at the turn of the present century brought into the confines as secular state a territory that was only nominally under the Spanish sovereignty. The American-Cotabato administration, as elsewhere in Mindanao, developed into three successive stages, namely: Military government, Moro Provinces and Department of Mindanao and Sulu. In the course of this period another era had ended in which the royal families would be eclipsed in prominence in public life. An emerging leader like Datu Sinsuat Balabaran, who readily co opted to the new order would play some vital role in Cotabato in itself was moving to a new government structure that would bring Filipino officials from the north.

On February 1, 1900, the first visit was made to Datu Piang at his settlement, in Dulawan, by the commanding officer and his men on the US gunboat Panay. A contrast marked the first visit of Datu Utu and Rajah Putri to the military governor of Cotabato for it was attended with much ceremony. Ironically Utu who was one of the most powerful chiefs of the moro chiefs or Datu’s upriver was now downstream. The passing of his heydays was summarized by Harriet Febiger in these words: “ his is the very bluest of all the blue Moro blood in this great island. His slaves, in serving him, creep and crouch like dogs, and even the other and lesser Datu’s bow before him and murmur between their half close lips, Dato….Dato”….there is another upstart, self-made Datu named Piang, who is now respected and feared. But a last glimpsed of that passing age may be reconstructed for one moment.

Although the end was in sight, it was the inception of the new secular structure that was to break the backbone of the traditional form of governance; for the royalties shied away from the new dispensation.

Following in the footsteps of his former patron, Datu Piang peacefully and easily made friends with the American authorities. This figure had taken the measure of the conditions in the islands came to Cotabato. Thus, Daniel Williams wrote in his diary: “ We anchored off the river leading to Cotabato early in the afternoon of April 1, 1901. Major McMahon in command came aboard in the evening accompanied by Datoos and Ali and their attendants” “ At the Cotabato landing we were greeted by as heterogeneous a crowd as imagination can conceive. Three companies of soldiers were in line, as also the “Moro guard” and a company of native police decked out in all the upriver Datu’s and their following had donned their bravest and came to town, never before in all like hood has there been such a gathering to datu’s at one point” “It being the present policy of our authorities to occupy merely the role of counselors and arbitrators in Moro affairs, no effort was made to establish to local government. The Moro, although primitive in many ways, seem to work out substantial justice among themselves.”

In Dulawan, Datu Piang entertained on a grand scale. According to Col. John White, to most of his visitors Piang made presents. It was reported that “the Datu had a carefully graduated scale of gifts that ran from an engraved Lantaka (brass cannon) or valuable piece of brass for a general down to half a dozen eggs for a second lieutenant. Piang died in 1933 at the age of 84.

The government instituted under the military district may be given in summary. The commanding officer became not only the governor of his district, but also mayor of the capital town of Cotabato. It was the principal business of the commanding officers to hear and decide compliant. As this procedure became cumbersome, it was decided to organize a board of arbitration, chosen by the moro’s by themselves, to hear all such complaints of a purely civil nature. The result had been most satisfactory since this was done as of December 7, 1901. in the same year telegraph lines were extended from Cotabato to Davao; it was connected to Tamontaka by telephone later, then followed by Taviran, Kudarangan and Regina Regente. Significantly, during the hearing before the US senate committee on the Philippine problems on Ap.10, 1902, recommendation was made “for the extension of a road around the lake Lanai to and across the divide to Paring which would be the base ultimately and commercial portfor all southern Mindanao, the road to be extended to Cotabato.”

The so-called Philippine Bill of 1902” recognized the distinction between the Moro’s, pagans and Christian Filipinos, which basically determined the feature of government worked out by the Americans for Mindanao and Sulu, where the Muslim population prevailed. Among the problems initially tackled were the position of then local datus. It was first suggested to institute there residency introduced by Sir Andrew Clarke for the malays of the straight settlements. But after consideration of local conditions it was decided by the Philippines conditions for the moros, modeled, so far as related to the chief executive offices, upon the general lines followed in establishing provincial governments for the Christian Filipinos, accordingly, the commission passed on June 1, 1903, act no. 787, organizing the Moro province. Under the Moro province there were five district provinces one of which was Cotabato. On October 29, 1903, the legislative council of the Moro province approved an act establishing the municipalities of Cotabato and Makaramong. Next to the municipalities in category and importance were the tribal wards to accommodate through a simple structure the non-Christian inhabitants. Thus, by way of recapitulation, the district province of Cotabato two organized municipalities (Makar and General Santos) and 18 tribal wards. On October 6, 1905, the legislative council of the Moro Province also passed Act no. 142 organizing the tribal wards courts which had the power and authority to try civil and criminal cases when parties involved were Moro but not Christians. The Philippine commission also clearly as 1903 approved the formation of a Moro Constabulary units, they were required to wear a red fez with either a black or a gold tassel, the manila times a reported on October 13, 1908.

In 1903, the legislative council, enacted Act no 8 making the ownership of slaves a crime, and punishable by twenty years imprisonment. Datu Ali who was not likely to take this with slight provocation took the field once more. General Leonard Wood, the first governor of the Moro Province, decided to conduct a military operation against Datu Ali at Salunayan, within the jurisdiction of the Midsayap Town now, still has visible trenches, a living testimony to the first clash in May, 1904 between the American troops and Maguindanao warriors.

In this encounter, General Leonard Wood personally led the reconnaissance, which resulted in a ambush of a company of the 17th Infantry, losing two officers and seventeen-foot patrol. But the American were quite strong for the for the fort, and Datu Ali ordered t retreat of his men from their dugouts. In the hot pursuit that Datu Diambangan who was a brother of Datu Ali as has been indicated earlier, was captured and taken to Cotabato, from this point onward in what marks first history of the guerilla warfare type, to the efficient-run American Military force. At Sempitan, Datu Ali made another stand but was routed out of this conventional position; he fled to Malala where he remained in hiding. But one of his men named Datu Enok turned against him.
Datu Sansaluna, son of Datu Ali who was with him at the time of capture (he was only 18 years old at that time). Explaining, the betrayal, Datu Sansaluna recalled that the place up there was so wild it would ordinarily have been quite impossible for the American forces to reach our camp, least of all find it. But one of our men turned traitor. Before the opening of the campaign, my father had taken a woman from Dulawan, who I think owned by Enok even went as far as Digos, Davao and personally conducted the Americans westward for five days through swamps, mountain and jungles, until they saw Datu Ali house beside Malala river. The capture took place October 2, 1905. On November 17, 1905, the national daily “The cable News reported that affirm in the Moro province appeared to improved a telegram from acting Governor Langhome t executive secretary Ferguson read as follows: “fifty seven guns in good condition Lately surrendered in Cotabato valley and 1,000 Moro came in and settled in their old homes. Captain Van Horn, District governor, has heard from remaining chiefs who are coming in with guns. Some 2,000 will be settled in Paidu Pulangui under Datu Sansaluna”.

Datu Sansaluna was brought to an exposition in Jamestown Beach, Virginia, USA, where he was exhibited possibly bally hoed as the son of a famous Moro warrior he was later presented to president Roosevelt.

As Peace settled in the Cotabato Valley between 1906-1909, general Tasker Bliss, the second governor of the Moro Province, thought of imposing “a disarmamament Policy in the district Governor Mayor A.B. foster advise against it, arguing that most weapons in Moro hands were obsolete, and were use mainly for game hunting and for protection from lawless elements. In 1908, General bliss reported that Cotabato was the most peaceful district in the province, stating that there were only five cases of assassination, 3 homicides and one reported assault. In another part of his report, General Bliss mentioned that the assistant Superintended of schools, Charles Cameron issued a directive in Marched 1907 t revise the curriculum to include teaching of industrial work in Muslim schools. By 1909, the Moro province enrollment had reached 4,894 out of which 3,897 were Christian Filipinos, 842 Moro and 130 highlanders of a plan to bring Islamic preceptors into province to teach Islam in the public schools in order to dissipate Muslim apathy was proposed. But it was opposed by Governor John Pershing.

In one sense Cotabato had become a center of interactions between the government and Datu’s of the interiors, which at times were beyond reach of public service. A report of secretary of Interior to the Philippine Commission. 1908, stated that town sites surveys have been completed for Dulawan, Dansalan, Parang-Parang and Cotabato. By 1911, soil test had been completed also which showed that the Cotabato valley was well suited for hemp, rubber, coconut, sugar cane, rice corn and sweet potato in that order; Pikit and its neighborhood were found to be favorable for the growth of rubber trees. Some statistical figures reveal these comparisons; in 1901, the Philippine Commission was informed that rice, coffee, guttpereha (rubber), almaciga and bees-wax were the major exports of Cotabato sent by the Chinese to Singapore. The two months with aggregate of about $ 150,000 (Mexican dollars). In 1911, Cotabato exports valued at P 137,892.13, which leaped in 1913 to P 391,135.78. Drought caused serious decrease in rice supply so that it was decided to bring homesteaders from overpopulated parts of the country to Cotabato.

Pursuant to Act no. 2254, Christian settlers in the upper part of Cotabato, in the southern coast was planned with the following objectives: (a) to increase the production in this imported in large quantities for local consumption; (b) to equalize the distribution of population in these islands; (c) to afford opportunity to colonist to become land proprietors and to bring under cultivation extensive wild public lands. The Cable News reported on June 3, 1913, that first actual shipments of colonist to the new Cotabato project would take place. In a chattered steamer 150 families, averaging five members each, would leave Cebu to take up their homesteads in Mindanao. Given the families were necessary implements to till the soil; supplies sufficient to tide them for the first few months would be advanced by the government, including the value of work animals and tools. In two other acts numbered 2280 and 2806, it was provided that the agricultural colonies at Pikit, and glam both in Cotabato town’s growth could for the settlers; some colonist in fact actually stayed instead of proceeding to their appointed places.


In accordance with cat no 2309 of the Philippine Commission the powers and duties of the Moro province were transferred to the Department of Mindanao and Sulu. Towards June 1914, the Philippine Commission 0also approved Act no. 2408, known as the organic Act of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu. Which was formally organized under Governor Frank Carpenter. In contrast to the legislative Council under the Moro Province, the Governor of the department was assisted by an Administrative council, which powers. Each province in the Department had a governor appointed by the department governor, subject to the confirmation to the governor general of the Philippines. There was a board of three members; the provincial governor, the provincial secretary-treasurer and the third member. Later on, however, the provincial treasurer was relieved as a member of the provincial board in his place another elective member of the board was provided. At first the "third member" was appointed by the Department Governor also appointed the third member, but in March 1915, the post was made elective under no. 2429. In Cotabato province, as in bukidnon, lanao and Sulu the third member was elected by the presidents, Vice presidents and councilors of the municipalities and municipal districts in the respective provinces. But the election was only in theory; he was most certainly handpicked by the governor. The positions were originally occupied by American officials, which were given to Filipino’s. Under the filipinized board the following were appointed: Major Dionisio Gutierrez, provincial governor; Mr. Lorenzo Palileo, provincial Treasurer Datu Ping, third member and Mr. Edilberto Mendoza, secretary to the provincial board. The municipal government was also reorganized.

The tribal wards were abolished and replaced by Municipal districts. The provincial governors from among the influential leaders of the communities appointed the municipal president. In summary, we may record that Cotabato had two organized municipalities (Cotabato and Parang) and 23 municipal president of the capital town of Cotabato. The period under consideration may be marked as the transition from a semi-military rule in Cotabato to full civil government. There has been a significant development also when governor Bryant and captain Carter on May 19, 1914 received the coming to the folds of law of Datu Alamada and 500 of his armed men. Datu Alamada had fought the government for twenty years prior to his surrender in 1914; he resisted the disarmament policy of governor John Pershing. But Ignacio Ortouste, who later became assistant to the governor of Cotabato, and Rosauro Lualhati, later made provincial Secretary –Treasurer in Bukidnon, negotiated for his giving up. In 1915, on invitation of Governor Carpenter he came to Manila Carnival. Governor General Burton Harrison describes his visit at MalacaƱang. He seemed tome like a wild bird, Poised for instant flight and extremely uncomfortable among the large crowd of officials at MalacaƱang Palace his hands was cold from suppressed nervousness and embarrassment. He had to come to Manila upon the assurance that he could carry his Kris at all times, and that he would not be obliged to wear ‘Christian clothing’. However, before the end of his first day in Manila Datu Alamada is said to have discarded the Kris and procured an American suit. Upon his return to Cotabato he was resettled with his followers in the Valley of Libungan River. Datu Alamada was subsequently appointed deputy governor Dionisio Gutierrez.

(1935 – 1941)

The first opportunity for Cotabato to have elective officials was occasioned by the choice of delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1935. The electors consisted of the municipal districts presidents, vice president and councilors. Cotabato elected: Datu Blah Sinsuat and Datu Menandang Piang. These gentlemen were first generation of educated Maguindanao. Atty. Piang served as chairman of the committee on Special Provinces of which Datu Blah Sinsuat was a member. The people of Cotabato voted in favor of ratification of new constitution with most vote cast coming from resident Christian Filipinos in the capital town. The result of the plebiscite was; 3,104 in favor and 491 against.

The election of national assemblymen in September 1935was not only lively but interesting because the town voted for its national officials. Datu Menandang Piang challenged Datu Sinsuat Balabaran, who twice his age and who had served in the old legislature with his father as appointed.

Senator from the 12th District of Mindanao and Sulu. Datu Menandang was badly beaten after a pre-election campaign in which he charged that governor Dionisio Gutierrez took Swimsuit’s side. According to Ralph Tomas, Datu Menandang was apparently regarded as an ally of secretary of the interior as Governor Gutierrez was called to manila to explain the accusation. He was exonerated of the charges, however, as reported in elected mayor of the municipality of Cotabato was Alejandro Dorotheo and voted for the first time, as vice mayor was Jose L. Lim.The forerunner of factional politics came about in the appointment of Datu Salipada Pendatun, another young Maguindanao Lawyer, as third member of the provincial board sometime after Datu Sinsuat Balabaran defeated Datu Menandang Piang 1935election for assemblyman.

In the next two elections for the national legislature Datu Ugalingan Piang, a brother of Datu Menandang, defeated Datu Sinsuat Balabaran. The predominance of the upper valley was further seen in the election of the two of the upriver Datu into the provincial board, namely: Datu Painkilling. Two appointive governors still served before theOutbreak of the war, Jose Cui and later maintain close’ ties with the Christian elements of the Municipality of Cotabato and evidently had the covert support of Governor Alfonso Pablo in the 1941 elections. At the outbreak of the war there was one regular municipality the capital and together with 37 municipal districts embraced the empire province.

Before leaving these sections, we may hasten to record that Oblates of Mary Immaculate came to the province in 1939 headed by now Bishop Gerard Mongeau. The Oblate fathers organized one of the first private schools of the Notre Dame of Midsayap; other private schools were the union Institute of Pikit. Frederick Doherty who was one of he ‘Thomasites’, then I.B. Edwards Kuder, John Stumbo and Colin Mackenzie, pioneered education in the province. Among the Filipinos were Siwa Guiana, Apolinario Corpuz, Sixto Tacardon, Calixto Panes, Adolfo Cascolan, Jose Hombrebano and Simeon Millan Sr. to name but a few Maguindanao teachers to the position of academic supervisor. According to miscellaneous Information collated by Governor Gutierrez in 1932. Cotabato had 117 schools, which included the Cotabato high schools, the Upi agricultural school, 2 farm schools and 97 other schools. The elementary schools at that time were divided into ten supervising districts. There seems to have been a material decline of enrollment of Muslim of decrease over previous years was noted annually also according to the yearbook of the Philippine Islands of 1930.

It is now nearly 500 years when Shariff Kabunsuan made his landfall at Cotabato. If this progenitor of the Maguindanao dynasty could return to discover what has become of the twin settlements of Maguindanao and Slangan, the Shariff would probably find these places beyond recognition. In this capital, where once Sultan Qudarat held court the seat of the Cotabato city government stands an imposing town half. It has been written of this Building:

About half a century old structure in the city hall, which houses almost all the city government offices. It is considered one of then landmarks as well as a tourism spot of the city and it can boast of its unique and antique architectures, providing a fascinating study on the complexity of Maguindanao/Muslim art. It displays ornate, artistic, colorful and abstract configurations with emphasis one stylistic and geometrical patterns.

The city government is run by the city mayor (incumbent is Hon. Juan J. Ty.), by the city Board (Sangguniang Panlungsod) and is supported by an administrative machinery of the offices of the city treasurer, city auditor, city engineer, city assessor, city register of deeds, city court, city fiscal, city health, city superintendent of schools, commander of integrated national police. The city has a project and planning development office.

The biggest expenditure of the city government is for maintenance of the market and slaughterhouse. Police gets a fairly large share amounting to ore than a half a million pesos since 1975. For the last ten years, beginning CY 1965-1966 to 1974-1975 the total revenue has reached the one million mark. In 1965 the city generated an income of P 1,504,658.77 and by 1973 assumed a peak in receipts of P 4,894,996.85. And the revenue dropped by almost P 800,000.00. Business palling enterprises to establish branches in Davao City and Cagayan de Oro City.

Ethnic position in Cotabato has always fascinated observers. Ethnologically, the Chinese predated the Spaniards in coming to this place and remained constituting a commercial middle class. There are still descendants of Arab, American and Indian immigrants who will constitute a very small sector, the biggest ethnic group is still the indigenous Iranon Muslims, reflecting 36% of the population; next in rank is the immigrant Cebuano, comprising 26%; some 15% tagalog, 11% hiligaynons; ilocanos, maranaos, and chabacanos (origin from Zamboanga) compose the remaining 12%. In terms of economic roles, the Luzon migrants, excepting the boholanos vendors, are in barbershops, cottage industry, agriculture and domestic concerns. Maguindanao Muslims form a large percentage of the fishermen, stevedores, goldsmiths and some farmers. The more economically stable have antique shops, restaurants and lodging houses; others handle makeshift stalls; quite a few own and operate inter-island vessels and small rice mills. The Chinese also monopolizes commercial establishments, although some Christian natives have entered the grocery business. The city Project Planning and Development Office has at the conclusion that Cotabato ranks 14 in the hierarchy of commercial settlements and the mercantile economy far outweighs its agricultural base.

Ecological structure in the city has been determined by the pattern of occupational distribution and limited built-up areas. Chinese residents usually live on tenements located downtown above the stores they maintain. According to a study made by Chester Hunt in the late 1950’s, the earliest migrants (Chabacanos) who were descendants of soldiers and preside Rios were concentrated close by the river front along the west side of the town, which is Manday. Migrant professionals began to occupy the Rosary Heights. Maguindanao in the past were scattered in the outskirts of the town along the riverbanks and its estuaries. A number of Maguindanaon where active heavy concentrations of Maguindanaons where active indigenous life exist, so reminiscent of the quaint days of Cotabato. Intermixed communities today constitute Tamontaka, but this district has high growth potentials. Once the road to Biniroan and to Kakar will be completed residents will live on the San Vicente from Bagua towards Malagapas; it is likely to follow the same trend of expansion. The Tantawan, which was originally occupied by the company of Moro constabulary in 1906, has since referred to as PC or Colina Hill and dotted their houses of constabulary officers, enlisted personnel and their families. The CEMCOM has since 1973 started to improve the summit to Tantawan as it appears.

Cotabato city often gives visitors the impression that the place has little sense of leisurely way of living. The town proper is small in size but its charm lie in Maguindanao history and as roam the city street in about 24 hours as there is a total 0f 54.034 kilometers of 1st class concrete, 1st class asphalt and 2nd class asphalt and 2nd class gravel roads. Or a vehicle can take a short drive to nearby historic Sultan Kudarat town which features countryside life and drive all the way through green rolling scenery. The first class highway (13 km) leads as of the present to the scenic Polloc harbor at the town of Parang, Maguindanao, where multi million modern ports is under completion. Once completed the 44-meter wharf will be supported by a reclaimed area of 11,800 square meters for the development of warehousing, storage and other ancillary services.

For a brief coastline trip, one can be cruise back to Cotabato and approach the city from the Bucana (mouth of Pulangui) where payguan lies on the Sultan Kudarat side of the bank and Kalanganan on the city side of the channel. The boat enters the cut-off channel traversing the Tinunduan River where Shariff Kabunsuan and Rajah Tabunaway first met. Along the banks of Paidu Pulangui is strung picturesque Maguindanao Muslim houses which would soon give way to the proposed boulevard connecting the city proper and Timako Hill. A word about Timako Hill and Tantawan hill. Legends have it that both hills are connected by the cave at the foot of the Timako and Tantawan in what could have been a subterranean label of life which conjures up the shades of the ‘hollow earth’ club of the European societies. Timako is said to have been the sunken boat of one of Buntugan’s wives who is the legendary figure in the epic of the Maguindanao and Lanao. Anyway in reality Timako hills over looks the Illana sea-lane, which is naturally protected by Bongo Island and graced by the beach resorts of Linik, Kusiong and Tapian point and the Amadeo Beach. Timako itself makes good resort considering its blue waters and sandy white beach, and once made accessible can be very well become the Cotabato seashore park. The place was so ideal for camping, boating, swimming and fishing as well as location for excursions, picnic grounds and recreation.

Water sports and boat racing used to be the one of the popular attractions on the Pulagui River. The occasion usually coincides with the feast of Hariraya Puasa and Hariraya Haji (Arabic Eid-ul Eid –ul Haj). Not seen these days are Maguindanao traditional Guinakits (floating decorated boats), which delve on the historical merry making on the river system. A colorful pageantry, through celebrated only once was festivity to complement the inaugural day of the region with the coming of Shariff Kabunsuan re-enacted on the Pulangui River. It can very well developed to revive the merry making festival on the historical mood of Cotabato. Fire works was always a part of the celebration in the past.

In the same token, there is for many recollection of the festivity that pervaded the cultural life of Cotabato in the observance of the Immaculate Conception Day in December. It used to be that the different educational institutions and civic clubs contribute each program, every night for one week to entertain the people of the old Notre Dame Gymnasium. The festival coincided as it still does, with the Christmas season and a majority of the urban districts used to celebrate it with elaborate preparations for the holiday Revelry likewise welcome the coming of the New Year amidst fireworks.

In retrospect, Cotabato has had its share of a colorful mood, and enriching cultural life. One recalls to mind hosting of the Third National Muslim Congress in 1953, and there was one moment that represented a converging of people from all walks of life into Rizal Park. The people have done it before and there are still many celebrations to come, which are tuned to both Islamic and Christian traditions of hospitality. Merry making, graciousness and the bright side of life. And many came to spend their holidays, as we foresee others will come to such a cultural revival. Cotabato is endowed with a balmy climate. The weather here is generally characterized by more or less an even distribution of rainfall throughout the year with varying the temperature from 76.63 inches to 94.88 inches in the province which gives a fairly good amount of share to the city.

The city is not bereft of convenient facilities today. The local telephone system, comparable to many in the country, serves 1,500 single lines and ties to the Philippine Long Distance Company. The to telegraph stations (RCPI and PT & T) also serves long distance telephone calls to many parts of the country. The city has also a good number of relatively comfortable hotels and restaurants catering superb seafood’s: it is for certain noted for its ‘pigek’ (a fish which spawns in the brackish part of the Pulangui). One samples native cookies “tinagtag” to the sipping of the native black coffee for only a minimal cost. Cotabato has places of worship for different denominations. There is the Immaculate Conception Cathedral in the poblacion, and the catholic churches at Almonte street and at Rosary Heights Tamontaka still has its old mission church, already described earlier. For Muslims, there are relatively impressive mosques at Lugay-Lugay section, along Mabini Street, the super market site, and a recent addition at the regional government center. Just across the Pulangui River at Banubo is the century-old Sultan Kudarat. As for the other religious denominations, there is the modern Iglesia ni Cristo Church, the Evangelical Church fronting the Rizal Park, Epicospalian Church, etc. Besides those church mentioned there are still others in many of the clustered settlements.

Historic choice of Cotabato city as the focal pint of the rationalization process has restored it to its past role in administration. Establishment of the regional commission was an original concept under reorganization Plan No. 53-A wherein the country was divided into 8 regions. As envisioned then Cotabato would have been dependent on Davao City as the growth center. The situation in Central Mindanao, Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi pursuant to P.D. 742 mandated the policy direction.

In order to make effective budgetary process as an instrument of regional government L OI No. 447 and No. 448 were issued. The latter has completed of the development of the regional government centers; administrative capabilities of the line agencies of government is worked out by the former Ho. Simeon A. Datumanong was appointed in September 1975 to become inn the history of the regional commission, its commissioner and as such the first pioneer personal representative of the president in the region. The central Mindanao command, which had its headquarters at Tantawan, has occupied the former provincial historic capitol building. Its first commanding general, Maj. General Fortunato Abat, is now the chief of staff of the army; AFP the present Cemcom Commanding General is Brig. Gen. Delfin C. Castro.

When our visitors come to Cotabato City, it will become obvious why our people live very normal lives in the wake of all negatives images concurred up elsewhere. Although the city is in the midst of urban renewal, while destroying many of its landmarks in the process, there are still historic structures preserved for everyone, including tourist.